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The origin of the track

update:17-04-2020
abstract:

As early as the 1830s shortly after the birth of the st […]

As early as the 1830s shortly after the birth of the steam car, it was envisaged that the wheels of the car were covered with "tracks" made of wood and rubber, so that heavy steam cars can walk on the soft ground, but the early track performance and use effect Not so good. It was not until 1901 that Lombard of the United States developed the first track with better practical effect when developing a forestry tractor. Three years later, California engineer Holt applied the invention of Lombard to design and manufacture a "77" steam tractor. This is the world's first crawler tractor. On November 24, 1904, this tractor was tested for the first time, and later it was put into mass production. In 1906, the Tractor Manufacturing Company founded by Holt produced the world's first crawler tractor powered by a gasoline internal combustion engine. This tractor began mass production the following year. It was the most successful tractor at that time and became a British development a few years later. The prototype car referenced in the world's first tank. In 1915, the "little wandering" tank developed by the United Kingdom followed the tracks of the American "Brock" tractor. In 1916, the "Schnade" and "Saint-Chamon" tanks developed by France continued to use the tracks of the American "Holter" tractors. The crawler has entered the tank history for nearly 90 years. Today, regardless of its structural form, materials, and processing, the crawler has continuously enriched the tank treasure. The crawler has developed into a tank "infinite track" that can withstand the test of war.Continuous Tracks mechanical parts

The track is a flexible link driven by the driving wheel, surrounding the driving wheel, the load wheel, inducing e799bee5baa6e79fa5e98193e78988e69d8331333239303831 wheels and carrier wheels. The track is composed of track shoes and track pins. The track pins connect the track shoes to form a track link. There are holes at both ends of the track shoe, which are meshed with the driving wheels, and there are induced teeth in the middle to regulate the track and prevent the track from falling off when the tank turns or rolls. To improve the firmness of the track shoe and the adhesion between the track and the ground.
The driving wheel is an active part, which is composed of a hub, a ring gear, a toothed washer, a tapered cup, a fixed nut and a stop bolt. It meshes through the gears and the crawler to transmit the power from the side reducer to the crawler to move the tank.
The induction wheel is a driven wheel, used to induce and support the track, and adjust the degree of tightness of the track together with the track adjuster. It is composed of hub, disc, ball bearing, axle cover, fixed nut, double-row ball bearing, support cup and wrap around oil retaining cover. The carrier roller is mainly used to support the upper track. Without such a carrier wheel, the crawler will hit. One end of the carrier axle is firmly fixed on the car body. Since the diameter of the carrier wheel is smaller than that of the load wheel, the rotation speed of its bearing is much higher, but it only supports the upper track, that is, 1/3 of the weight of the track, to reduce the oscillation of the track.
The track adjuster is used to adjust the tightness of the track. It consists of bracket, crank arm, bushing, worm wheel, worm, screw, friction plate and bushing. The tension of the track has a great influence on the tank running and track life. Tracks that are too tight or too loose are not good. Different use environments require different elasticity of the crawlers. If driving on a hard road, the tracks should be stretched tighter; when driving in a desert area, the tracks should be stretched looser. In addition, as track pin and pin ear hole wear increases, the track will also become loose. In order to maintain the proper tension of the track, a track adjuster is needed to adjust the tightness of the track. This is to change the tension of the track by changing the distance of the induction wheel relative to the driving wheel by the track adjuster. The track adjuster swings the induction wheel backward to a certain position, and the induction wheel moves away from the driving wheel, so the track is tensioned; the track adjuster causes the induction wheel to swing forward to a certain position, and the track becomes looser.
The load wheel is used to bear the weight of the tank and regulate the track. It is composed of wheel hub, wheel disc, adhesive tape, ball bearing, wheel cap, fixing nut, wrap around oil retaining cap, etc. The large number of load wheels makes each wheel bear less weight and the pressure distribution on the ground is even, which is conducive to improving the traffic performance of the tank.
When the power of the engine is transmitted to the driving wheel, the driving wheel turns the track clockwise, so that the interaction force is produced between the grounded track and the ground. According to the principle of force action and reaction, the crawler gives a force to the ground in the horizontal direction, and the ground gives a reaction force to the track. This reaction makes the tank move, called the tractive force of the tank.
From this point of view, whether the tank can move is mainly restricted by two conditions; one is the power condition, and the other is the ground condition. The power condition refers to the power provided by the engine to the tank to pass through the ground. Without this power, the driving wheel cannot rotate. The ground condition refers to the force transmitted by the driving wheel to the track, and it must be provided by the ground with a reaction force (even if the traction of the tank movement) can be achieved. When the traction force and the driving resistance are equal, the tank moves at a constant speed; when the traction force is greater than the driving resistance, the tank accelerates; when the traction force is less than the driving resistance, the tank decelerates.
The power of the engine is continuously transmitted from the driving wheel, and the driving wheel continuously turns the track winding movement. During the propulsion of the tank, on the one hand, the crawler track that was rolled down from the induction wheel was laid on the ground and pressed under the forward-rolling road wheel; After so many rounds, a track laid by the tank was formed, and an "infinite track" was laid wherever the tank ran. When the tank advances or retreats, the two tracks continuously move forward or backward, like the tank's "self-contained road", constantly paving the way for the tank.